Greetings MIE2021 Participants!
Yes, MIE2021, the first all digital Medical Informatics Europe is formally over: ~410 participants, 203 full papers, 32 communications, 26 posters, 15 workshops, 5 panels, 6 demos, 6 amazing keynotes and we are looking forward to STC2021 in Seville hoping that we will be able to meet in person. Don’t get me wrong, there are positive aspects of being digital, like MIE2021 Daily, like the amazing walk in the memory lane prepared by Jacob Hofdijk with pictures from going back to the early eights and the first MIEs and the video of Izet Masic shown in the opening. There is also the video library which will be available at mie2021.vfairs.com for another month.
In the closing session, we looked again at the highlights of the last three days, the virtual conference environment, and the booth of EFMI where you can fill out the yEFMI surveys. If you have time during the next month please visit and complete the survey. We look forward to your feedback. You can also walk the booth of the FAIR4Health Project (www.fair4health.eu) and the MIE2021 poster wall. So not only we can already consult the MedLine indexed papers in proceedings published by IOS press, we can also revisit the video presentations from the last three days in the video library thanks to the generous sponsorship of SNOMED International. In the closing session, John Mantas and Lacramiora Stoicu Tivadar, MIE2021, co-chairs of the scientific committee announced the awards, which appear below as captured on the screen.
Congratulations award winners of MIE2021!
Professor Mantas said goodbye from Athens to his virtual visitors and remembered past MIE conferences all the way back to the 80’s.
As for me I hope to meet in person in Seville for the STC2021, connected to the FAIR4Health project (fair4health.eu) and FAIR data for research.
I requested from the session chairs to share their thoughts about their chairs. As you can see below, many of them responded. I hope the feedback will bring you back to video library to watch more sessions.
Catherine Chronaki, EFMI President (2021-2022)
Session 29 – Supporting care delivery, (31.5.2021, Room A, 9:00am) Chair: Mauro GIACOMINI
In this session we had six preregistered presentations and one live presentation. Adrian Krenzer (Julius-Maximilian University of Würzburg, Germany) presented a semi-automatic tool for fast and accurate annotation of endoscopic videos utilizing trained object detection models with a paper entitled “Semi-Automated Machine Learning Video Annotation for Gastroenterologists”. A novel workflow was implemented, and the preliminary results suggest that the annotation process is nearly twice as fast with our novel tool compared to the current state of the art.
Arshad Farhad (Keele University, Staffordshire, UK) presented his research entitled “A Preliminary Scoping Study of Federated Learning for the Internet of Medical Things”. This paper presents a scoping review of federated learning for the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) and demonstrates the limited amount of research work in an area which has potential to improve patient care. Federated Learning and IoMT–as standalone technologies – have already proved to be disruptive but there is a need for further research to apply federated learning to the IoMT.
Noemi Giordano (Politecnico di Torino, Italy) presented her research entitled “Simulation of the impact on the workload of the enlargement of the clinical staff of a specialistic reference center”. The authors have previously developed a simulation system to quantify the workload of the staff working in a regional reference center for the treatment of bleeding and hemorrhagic disorders. The goal of this new work is to simulate, through an agent-based model, the impact of adding a physician to the staff. Ten sets of initial parameters were defined to simulate ten typical weeks. Results show that the introduction of the new physician together with a second ambulatory room can reduce the workload of all the staff to the expected 8-hour. In this situation, in which the staff workload does not exceed the daily capacity, the author may suppose that an increase in the quality of care and patient satisfaction will be possible.
Francesca Polce (University of Pavia, Italy) presented her research entitled “The Case Manager: Driving Medical Reasoning in a Distributed Environment for Home Patient Monitoring”. This study presents somepreliminary results of the CAPABLE project that has been funded by the EU Horizon 2020 Programme over the years 2020-24 to support home care. A system is being designed and implemented supporting remote monitoring and virtual coaching for cancer patients. The system is based on a distributed modular architecture involving many components encapsulating various knowledge. The Case Manager has been designed as a separate component with the aim of coordinating the problem-solving strategies. A first version of the Case Manager has been released and used by the components in a prototypical scenario shown at the first project review.
Georges Bediang (University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon) presented his research entitled “Evaluation of the effectiveness of telemedicine in the management of cardiovascular diseases in primary health care in Cameroon: an interventional study”. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of tele-expertise (tele-ECG) in primary health care in Cameroon for the management of patients with cardiovascular diseases or risk factors. It is a controlled multicenter study carried out in Cameroon two health facilities where tele-ECG has been implemented and two other where telemedicine has been not implemented for control purposes. Patients having cardiovascular risk factors or diseases received usual primary health care in the control centers. In contrast, they received usual primary health care and could perform an ECG associated with cardiologists; remote expertise (tele-ECG) in the intervention centers. The primary outcome was to evaluate the rate of patients’ access to an ECG test and to cardiologist; expertise. The authors assess that telemedicine is effective for the management of patients with cardiovascular diseases in primary health care. It could improve healthcare providers; clinical processes, clinical outcomes of patients and their satisfaction.
Haris Aftab (University of York, York, United Kingdom) presented his research entitled “Classification of Failures in the Perception of Conversational Agents (CAs) and their Implications on Patient Safety”. In this paper, the authors classify failures of perception (recognition and understanding) of conversational agents and their sources. They also present a case study of a CA used for calculating insulin dose for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients. The authors then correlate identified perception failures of CAs to potential scenarios that might compromise patient safety.
Stine Hangaard (Aalborg University, Aalborg East, Denmark) presented her research entitled “Preliminary qualitative evaluation of patient-related perspectives related to the implementation of a predictive algorithm in a telehealth system for COPD”. The aim of the present study was to evaluate patient-related perspectives from a five-week test of the implementation of a COPD prediction algorithm. The test intended to discover and avoid potential errors prior to testing the COPD prediction algorithm. The COPD prediction algorithm aims to predict exacerbations in COPD based on home measurements. In the present study, the algorithm was implemented in a currently deployed telehealth system. Five weeks after implementation, six interviews were conducted, including five interviews with patients with COPD and one interview with a specialized COPD nurse. The participants were overall satisfied with the telehealth system including the COPD prediction algorithm. However, technical issues must be addressed before the COPD prediction algorithm is ready to be tested. Moreover, communication with the monitoring nurses should be clearer based on the COPD nurse’s experiences. In conclusion, the participants were satisfied with the integration of the COPD prediction algorithm in the telehealth system. The identification of technical issues shows the importance of including a technical test period in a similar trial setup.After these very interesting and technically optimal presentations the group had an interesting discussion enlightening specific aspects of the presented research.
WORKSHOP – FAIRness for FHIR project: making the Covid-19 Datasets FAIR with HL7 FHIR
By Sylvia Thun, chair HL7 Germany and FAIR4Health.eu team
The aim of this MIE2021 workshop organized by FAIR4Health project and supported by EFMI, RDA, and HL7 Europe was to present an update on the HL7 ‘FAIRness for FHIR project’ to deliver an Implementation Guide on making FAIR health data sets using HL7 FHIR. Thus, this workshop links data science with the health informatics and standards communities, working jointly with HL7 FHIR and FAIR in the context of data collected in the field of translational, clinical and epidemiological research. More specifically to:
- share early results in the development of and further elaborate of the HL7 FAIRness for FHIR implementation guide (HL7 FHIRFAIR IG), covering the use of HL7 FHIR to technically represent FAIR data improving measures of interoperability and reusability.
- encourage the medical and health informatics communities working on covid-19 to join the RDA and HL7 communities and share their experience contributing to the development of HL7 standards improving working methods to accurately represent FAIR criteria facilitating Covid-19 research.
The workshop started with presentation of workshop objectives and introduction of the FAIRness for FHIR project by Catherine Chronaki and Alicia Martinez. Then Mattias Loebe presented his experience as he set out to FAIRify a COVID-19 data set from global.health. He discussed the problems when attempting to FAIRify Data for SARS-COV-2 virus and Covid-19 disease research at European and international level. Matthias explored problems with using HL7 FHIR resources as a first step to FAIRify a global.health data set. Oya BEYAN commented on the level of FAIRness of the global.health data set using the FAIR maturity model of RDA. Then, the GECCO-83 effort was presented by Sylvia Thun. FAIRness of sample Covid-19 datasets and their quality were discussed. (H2020 ORCHESTRA REDCAP, GECCO DE SIMPLIFIER) in, with the aim to understand the actions advancing the development of the HL7 FHIR4FAIR IG by working in the Covid-19 domain, assessing important steps in the FAIR certification roadmap. Finally, Giorgio CANGIOLI presented the HL7 FAIRness for FHIR project to create the HL7 FHIRFAIR IG, lead the discussion, and invite participants to contribute. The expected outcome is raising awareness on FAIR, the results of FAIR4Health project, RDA FAIR maturity models, and engagement with the HL7 Project on HL7 FAIRness for FHIR project to produce HL7 FAIR4FHIR IG.
Regarding the GECCO project the situation is as follows: The current COVID-19 pandemic has led to a surge of research activity. While this research provides important insights, the multitude of studies results in increasing fragmentation of information. To ensure comparability across projects and institutions, standard datasets are needed. The “German Corona Consensus Dataset” (GECCO), a dataset that uses international terminologies and health IT standards improves interoperability of COVID-19 data, in particular for university medicine. An initial dataset was compiled as a working basis by merging data elements and response options of the following projects: the ISARIC-WHO CRF; the Pa-COVID-19 study, which investigates the pathophysiology of COVID-19 in a prospective patient cohort; the LEOSS case registry, a clinical patient registry for patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 initiated by the ESCMID Emerging Infections Task Force (EITaF), the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF) and the German Society for Infectiology (DGI). This draft dataset was saved in a spreadsheet and sent to members of an expert board for comment and proposal of additional data elements. The expert board was composed of health professionals from 50 institutions, in particular departments from German university hospitals, professional associations, and other relevant organizations. For the prioritization, the experts were asked to assign a priority value to each data element of the dataset. Priorities were indicated on a 5-level scale that was loosely based on the NIH model for CDEs. To ensure syntactic and semantic interoperability, elements and response options of the core dataset were mapped to international standards and terminologies.
The following terminologies and code systems were used: the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, German modification (ICD-10-GM) for diagnoses; Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) for laboratory values and other measurements; the Unified Code for Units of Measure (UCUM) for measurement units; the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC) for active ingredients of drugs and medications; SNOMED CT for diagnoses and other medical concepts. We used two terminology systems—SNOMED CT and ICD-10-GM—for diagnoses because ICD-10-GM is the dominant classification system in German healthcare and is important for reimbursement purposes, whereas SNOMED CT allows for a more detailed coding of clinical terms and is therefore preferable for better medical accuracy. The annotation of data elements with international terminologies was done using ART-DECOR, an open source collaboration platform for experts from medical, terminological and technical domains aiming on creation and maintenance of datasets with data element descriptions, use case scenarios, value sets and Health Level 7 (HL7) templates and profiles.
To define FAIR interoperable formats for data exchange, the HL7 standard “Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources” (FHIR) was used. FHIR builds on a set of “resources”, which provide generic data structures for common healthcare concepts, such as Patient, Practitioner, Observation, Medication or Condition. From these resources more specific data structure definitions, so-called “profiles”, can be defined, which allow for interoperable data exchange across health IT systems. To ensure interoperability, care was taken to build on previous work where possible, in particular the FHIR profiles of the German Medical Informatics Initiative, the International Patient Summary (IPS), the Logica COVID-19 profiles and the FHIR base profiles of HL7 Germany. FHIR profiles were defined using Forge and published on the Simplifier platform.
The workshop raised a lot of interest, 35 people participated in the questions and topics discussed.
Session 30 – Biomedical data, tools and methods – Semantics, controlled terminologies, ontologies, and vocabularies, Chair: Ivana OGNJANOVIĆ
By Ivana OGNJANOVIĆ, Chair yEFMI WG, yEFMI Officer EFMI Board
The session included five papers addressing different aspects of biomedical data presentation including ontological presentation and vocabularies, as well as creation of relevant methodologies and methods.
Two presentations were related to COVID -19, one was focused on integration of research data for COVID-19 studies and relevant structured searches which this required use of established, standardized vocabularies, terminologies or ontologies such as SNOMED CT. The presented study
shows that SNOMED CT can be utilized for COVID-19 cohort browsing. Another COVID-19 related paper analysed knowledge graph representation as appropriate structure framework to analyse published literature to identify and represent underlying mechanistic associations that aggravate chronic conditions due to COVID-19.
One presentation was focused on terminology maintenance issues (which is also highly relevant to new terminology created during COVID-19 pandemic), proposed new framework for merging and adaptation of two static theoretical frameworks that consisted of criteria relating to using a terminology, divided among relevant stakeholders. The framework was applied to the healthcare terminology maintenance process in the Netherlands.
Related to data interoperability and standardization, there were two presentations describing concrete experience from Canada and Germany, respectively. One presentation described first release of Canadian drug ontology (OCRx), which is built upon two public databases: Health Canada’s Drug Product Database (DPD) and the Canadian Clinical Drug Dataset (CCDD) to provide a normalized and standardized description of drugs that are authorized to be marketed in Canada.
On the other side, presentation was focused on mapping clinical data on rare diseases to Observational Medical Outcome Partnership Common Data Model (OMOP CDM) by importing the terminologies and making use of the data to provide a dashboard for physicians and visualization of relevant indicators.
Session 31 – Biomedical data, tools and methods – Data interoperability and data, Mikhail Shifrin
By Mikhail Shifrin, National Representative of Russia in the EFMI Council
Six papers were presented at the session. Five of them were devoted – in one sense or another – to the problem of data integration. It could be integration of patients’ data from different hospitals, or integration of data from different research project, or integration of data received from different devices working in different modes. One presentation was devoted to generating synthetic clinical data – an interesting attempt to avoid the problem of corrupting the security of personal data. All presentations were original and interesting. The audience was rather active; there were many questions during the discussion.
Despite the variety of topics, they also had something in common. This is the situation that biomedical informatics has faced in recent years: we see a huge amount of clinical data that is growing rapidly, but it is very heterogeneous and it is often not so simple to find the required number of cases for concrete investigation. It seems that we are faced with one of the main challenges of biomedical informatics: data redundancy and lack of data at the same time.
Session 32 – Biomedical data, tools and methods – Data interoperability and data integration, Chair: Patrick WEBER
By Patrick Weber, EFMI President (2013-2014)
This session focuses on how the integrate data collected with the help of different devices or documents. Were presented Endoscopy data, Ambulance and emergency data, pathogen collection also eHealth in Iran, security for personalized data, and help for clinical research document.
Keynote: Harnessing AI to deliver a personalised and efficient health and wellness journey, Chair: Lacramioara Stoicu-Tivadar, Speaker: Konstantina Nikita
By Lacramioara Stoicu-Tivadar, EFMI President (2019-2020), EFMI Representative in IMIA
The First keynote session of the day welcomed Prof. Konstantina Nikita, a complex personality and an inspiration for combining the technical background and the medical one, with great accomplishments in projects, publications, participations in prestigious biomedical and technical organizations. Konstantina Nikita is a full Professor at the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, director of the Mobile Radiocommunications Laboratory and founder and director of the Biomedical Simulations and Imaging (BIOSIM) Laboratory. She is Irene McCulloch Distinguished Adjunct Professor of Biomedical Engineering and Medicine at the University of Southern California. Her talk, Harnessing AI to deliver a personalised and efficient health and wellness journey, presented research on chronic disease management in the frame of Precision Medicine. The focus was on diabetes, and related to enhanced integration of heterogeneous data, glucose prediction models based on sensing and self-report data, discussing results and performance. It was a concentrated ”pill” of research, combining medical knowledge, mathematical and technical support.
Session 33 – Biomedical data, tools and methods, (May 31, 3pm) Chair: Thomas DESERNO
By Thomas Deserno, EFMI Medical Image Processing (MIP) WG
The session (33) “Biomedical data, tools and methods” was composed of five presentations, with contributions from France, Denmark, Switzerland, and Germany. A sixth presentation from Finland was not given, and the speaker was not present. The topics addressed in the session focused on visualization and integrated data analysis. For instance, in substitution of Venn diagrams, Mouzer et al. suggested to use the RainBio tool from gene expressions to visualize the similarity between different guidelines, which turns particularly useful when comparing five or more sources. And to visualize food and drug interactions, Lalanne et al. applied edge diagrams. Liakopoulou, et al. provided a smart dashboard for assessing longitudinal data (several datapoints all 10 ms). In biomedical record linkage, Sariyar and Holm explained the differences between identity and similarity, while Staemmler identified FHIR usage pattern in IHE profiles. Beside the speakers, 28 participants were in the audience, and a fruitful discussion lasts to the very end of the time, although one presentation was missing.
Session 34 – Biomedical data, tools and methods. Chair: Mihaela Marcella CRISAN-VIDA
“MainzelHandler: A Library for a Simple Integration and Usage of the Mainzelliste” was presented by Tobias Brix. The objective of the work presented is the development of a library to simplify the integration and usage of the Mainzelliste’s API in a TMF conform way.
“Specifications for the Routine Implementation of Federated Learning in Hospitals Networks” was presented by Antoine Lamer. The study proposed by the authors of the paper was specifications for setting up and routinely running Federated Learning in a network of hospitals.
“Recognition of Neonatal Hospitalization Cost In an Intensive Care Unit In Greece and the Deviation from Its current reimbursement system” presented by Charalambos Platis. The authors investigate in their study whether the costs according with D.R.G.’s correspond to the actual-real cost, after these costs are recorded in the N.I.C.U.
“High Performance Work Practices and Work Results on Non-Profit Institutions” was presented by Charalambos Platis. In this work, the authors presented the research findings related to managements or Human Resource executives of non-profit organizations and how they should use High Performance Work Practices.
“Automated Generation of Individual and Population Clinical Pathways with the OMOP Common Data Model” was presented by Fabio Boudis. In the paper presented, the authors proposed a tool automating the representation of the clinical pathways and reducing complexity of visualization. “Using Interactive Visual Analytics to Optimize in Real-Time Blood Products Inventory at a Blood Bank” was presented by Jaber Rad. The authors propose an innovative Blood Inventory Dashboard (BID) to help blood transfusion services visualize in real-time the evolving inventory of the blood bank, to help improve efficiency and reduce waste.
Session 38 – Biomedical data, tools and methods – Information models and data representation standards Chair: Joseph LIASKOS
By Joseph LIASKOS, EFMI Community
The session “Biomedical data, tools and methods – Information models and data representation standards” included six full paper presentations related to EHRs, interoperability standards, data models and reference architectures, as well as mapping approaches among different standards.
The first paper was from Madrid (Spain). It was presented by Miguel PEDRERA and supported by Miguel PEDRERA and Noelia GARCIA-BARRIO. It aimed to describe how EHRs have been used to supply healthcare and research needs in a major Hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The second paper was from Baltimore (US). It was presented and supported by Taxiarhis Botsis, and it focused on mapping the public FAERS (Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System) data fields to the FHIR AdverseEvent Resource elements and developing a software tool to automate this process, for the purpose of the post-market safety surveillance.
The third paper was from New York (US). It was presented and supported by Zhehuan CHEN, and it assessed the overlapping clinical phenotyping concepts between clinical trial eligibility criteria and the electronic phenotyping algorithms from eMERGE (Electronic Medical Records and Genomics network) and OHDSI (Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics).
The fourth paper was from Berlin (Germany). It was presented and supported by Eugenia RINALDI, and it explored mapping infection control related data, across three different standards: openEHR, FHIR (Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources) and OMOP CDM (Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model).
The fifth paper was from Lille and Rennes (France). It was presented and supported by Arthur LAURIOT DIT PREVOST, and it described, among others, a simple data model using validated formats, in order to propose an optimal workflow for producing medical imaging reports.
The sixth paper was from Regensburg, Deggendorf (Germany), Prague (Czech Repulic) and Salt Lake City (US). It was presented and supported by Bernd BLOBEL, and it discussed requirements and solutions for the design and management of transformed health ecosystems, by introducing ISO 23903 reference architecture and comparing it with other existing approaches and standards.
Session 39 – Biomedical data, tools and methods – Natural language processing; Chair: Alfred WINTER
By Alfred Winter, EFMI Board Secretary
It is certainly desirable to record as much health data as possible in a structured form so that it can be processed further. Not least because structured recording is often impractical, a lot of data is available in unstructured form in natural language. This applies to both clinical documents and scientific texts. This session was mainly devoted to the question of how structured data can be extracted from unstructured texts using NLP. The first presenter explained, how the minutes of multidisciplinary team meetings on cancer patients can also be used to extract the detailed parameters needed to include patients in precision medicine trials. It was exciting to discuss that certain text analysis procedures offered commercially free of charge are very powerful but questionable whether they can be reconciled with patient privacy claims.
A procedure presented for replacing identifying data with pseudonyms also serves to ensure the confidentiality of patient data. Another presentation was devoted to the question of how clinical documents in Spanish and English can be analyzed. But also the FAIR provision of structured data with OpenEHR was discussed. Even though the focus was on the analysis of clinical texts, the discussion was complemented by a contribution on the automatic anotation of preprints related to the Covid-19 pandemic, which supports the fast and easy retrieval of such preprints – essential for medical progress!
Session 40 – Biomedical data, tools and methods Chair: Mihaela Crișan-Vida
“Knowledge Acquisition and Construction of a RDF-Ontology for Computer-assisted Surgery” presented by Niclas Hagen. The paper presented demonstrate the knowledge acquisition and construction of an RDF- ontology for surgical knowledge representation and as example was used mandibular reconstruction. The ontology can be quire and used for the automatic calculation of reconstruction proposal in the virtual planning system using an interfaced based on SPARQL.
“Using Knowledge Graphs to Plausibly Infer Missing Associations in EMR Data” presented by William Van Woensel. In this paper, authors presented a knowledge-based reasoning method that plausibly infers missing causal EMR associations, together with a semantic Extract- Transform-Load pipeline for preparing and EMR Knowledge Graph.
“DeIDNER Corpus: Annotation of Clinical Discharge Summary Notes for Named Entity Recognition using BRAT Tool” was presented by Mahanazuddin Syed. The objective of the paper is to create a high quality annotated clinical corpus for training Named Entity Recognition models. The methodology presented involves training, refined guidelines and discussions in iterations ensured high-quality annotation that was quantified using Inter Annotator Agreement metric.
“Fine-grained Simplification of Medical Documents” was presenter by Anaïs Koptient. In this paper, the authors proposed a rule-based system to simplify technical texts in French from the medical domain that performs both syntactic and lexical simplification. It was performed fine-grained transformation for adjusting and checking the grammaticality of the simplified sentences. The system was evaluate using three metrics: simplicity, adequacy, and grammaticality.
“Disambiguation of Medical Abbreviations in French with Supervised Methods” presented by Anaïs Koptient. The paper presented a work in disambiguation of medical abbreviations in French. It proposed a method based on supervised categorization.
“Inter-Rater Reliability of Unstructured Text Labeling: Artificially vs. Naturally Intelligent Approaches” was presented by Gleb Danilov. The authors presented a study to assess the agreement between experts who judged on the fact of pulmonary embolism in neurosurgical cases retrospectively based on electronic health records and assess the utility of the machine learning approach to automate this process.
Keynote Address, of Carina Dantas “Data to citizens: the variants of trust for health data sharing”, Chair: Lăcramioara Stoicu-Tivadar.
By Lacramioara Stoicu-Tivadar, EFMI President (2019-2020), EFMI Representative in IMIA
The afternoon keynote session of the day introduced Carina Dantas, a great personality and an expert in management and cooperation. Carina Dantas is International Project Manager at ECHAlliance, Chair of NET4Age-Friendly, Vice-President of the European Covenant on Demographic Change and Coordinator of the Stakeholder Network SHAFE – Smart Healthy Age-friendly Environments. Carina has over 20 years of experience in the social and health care sector, and a great project management and implementation experience. She is active under CEN/CENELEC to build and validate the European Professional Ethics Framework for the ICT Profession and contributes to The AAL Programme Guidelines on Ethics, data security and privacy. The keynote presentation “Data to citizens: the variants of trust for health data sharing” presented ideas on how to enhance citizen participation and ownership of the digital revolution, essential for further developments in the data sharing landscape, based on the work of several projects and initiatives such as Digital Health Europe, the Digital Health Society, NET4Age-Friendly, and All policies for a healthy Europe. The Q&A session was great, alive and created the need for future events on the raised topics.